In pharmacogenomics, there is a particular interest in integrating image metadata with the clinical trials and genomic data. Molecular imaging is rapidly becoming an effective technology in biomarker development for pharmaceutical R&D. The nondestructive nature of molecular imaging provides the means to observe, in vivo, a molecular target along with the effects of a particular drug.
The pharmacogenomics bio-medical imaging integration enables the correlation of de-identified imaging data with clinical trials and genomic data in the JANUS warehouse, which was recently proposed to the FDA. In addition, it allows users to query and view those images in a browser or a DICOM viewer.
The Pharmacogenomics bio-medical imaging support includes two main scenarios:
- Store Image Metadata in JANUS - an off-line scenario in which image metadata is pushed from an imaging archive system, such as MCM or PACS into JANUS warehouse.
- Retrieve Image in Pharmacogenomics Portal - an on-line scenario in which the user selects an image and retrieves it to the Pharmacogenomics portal.
In this case, the integration layer includes three services deployed within WAS 6: a Data Processor Engine (DPE), Web Access to DICOM Persistent Objects (WADO) Server, and an AGPI Server. The index layer includes the JANUS warehouse and the Pharmacogenomics Portal is the application and data mining tool on top of the index layer.
Data Processor Engine (DPE)
The Data Processor Engine is a scalable engine used to retrieve data and execute a path of data processing modules. The DPE is used in the "store image metadata" (offline) scenario and it retrieves image metadata such as image ID, body part examined, and modality using the connectors and DICOM data handler. Then, it uses UDiP to de-identify the protected health information and insert an AGPI instead, which is an opaque value. Finally, it generates XPT files from the de-identified image metadata which are files compliant with CDISC SDTM IM domain.
Web Access to DICOM Persistent Objects (WADO) Server
The WADO server gets WADO URLs and returns the DICOM object adequate to that URL. The WADO URL includes: the image ID; some parameters applied to the image, including image resizing; and the AGPI to be inserted into the object. The WADO server is used in the "Retrieve Image" (online) scenario.
The AGPI server generates or finds (if already generated) an AGPI for given demographics. It provides different AGPIs to different patients but strives to provide the same AGPI to the same patient.